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Invisible mouse clicks Let hackers throw themselves deep into MacOS



One-way Operator System developers try to protect the computer's secrets from exploratory hackers, with an appeal to the person on the keyboard. By giving the user a choice to "allow" or "deny" an application's access to sensitive data or features, the operating system can create a checkpoint that stops malicious software while allowing innocent applications to crawl. But former NSA employee and noted Mac hacker Patrick Wardle have spent the last year investigating a crushing issue: What if a piece of malware can reach and click the "allow" button as easily as a human being?

At DefCon hacker conference Sunday in Las Vegas, Wardle plans to introduce a widespread set of automated attacks he has been pulling against macOS versions as recently as 201

7 release High Sierra, capable of so-called synthetic clicks that allow malware to burst through permission instructions meant to block it. The result can be malicious software that, once it has found a way on a user's machine, can bypass security layers to perform tricks to find the user's location, steal their contacts or, with their most surprising and critical technique, take over the deepest kernel of the operating system , known as the kernel, to fully control the computer.

"The user interface is the only point for errors," says Wardle, now acting as security researcher for Digita Security. "If you have a way to synthetically interact with these alerts, you have a very powerful and generic way to bypass all these security mechanisms."

Wardle's attack, to be done, does not give hacker a first foothold on a computer; they only help a hackers malware to penetrate security layers on an already infected machine. However, Wardle claims that they could still serve as powerful tools for sophisticated attackers who try to steal more data from or get deeper control over a machine they've already penetrated with a malicious attachment in a phishing email or other common technique. [19659005] Invisible Clicks

MacOS contains a feature that allows some programs, such as AppleScript, to generate "synthetic click" mouse clicks generated by a program instead of a human finger – allowing features like automation and disability utility. In order to keep malware from abusing the programmed clicks, it blocks them from any sensitive "permissions" recommendations.

But Wardle was surprised to find that MacOS does not protect messages like pulling out user contacts, accessing their calendar, or reading the latitude and longitude of their machine, determined by which Wi-Fi network it's connected to. His malicious test code can simply click on thr

"It's this ridiculous bypass that I found by error correction code."

Patrick Wardle, Digita Security

Wardle has also experimented with using synthetic clicks for far more serious hacking techniques. He had previously discovered that malicious software could also use an obscure macOS feature called "mouse keys", which allows the user to manipulate the mouse pointer with the keyboard to perform synthetic clicks that bypass security requests. In one speech he gave last summer at the SyScan Security Conference in Singapore, Wardle pointed out that Apple had overlooked the mouse key function so that it was not blocked when it clicked through "allow" message of even very sensitive features such as getting access the macOS keychain, which contains the user's password, and installs core events that can add code to the most powerful part of a Mac's operating system.

Apple responded by leaving Wardle's mouse button header. But when he later tried to test ways to get around that piece of paper, he stumbled into a single strange bug. A synthetic click contains both a "down" command and an "up" command, which correlates with clicking a mouse and then dropping it. But Wardle copied and deleted incorrect code snippets, so that it executed two commands instead. When he ran that code, the operating system mysteriously translated the other "down" to an "up" and completed the click. And the "down-down" synthetic clicks, discovered Wardle, are not blocked when used to click on an "allow" message to install a kernel extension.

"It's this ridiculous bypass that I found by error correction code," he says. "I tripped over because I wanted to run out and surf and I was lazy."

If malware can use the trick to install a kernel extension, it can often exploit the extra code to get full control over a target machine. Nuclear extension-like drivers in Windows must be signed by a developer for MacOS to install them. However, if an existing signed core extension has a security error, a piece of malware can install the extension and then exploit its error to take control of the kernel. Wardle points out that Slingshot malware Kaspersky revealed last March, which was later revealed to be a hacking tool used by US special forces to track ISIS targets, used this exact technique.

"Many advanced malware really tries to get into the kernel. It's like god mode," said Wardle. "If you can infect the kernel, you can see everything bypass all security mechanisms, hide processes, sniff user codes. It's real game over. "

Low-Hanging Bugs

Apple did not respond to WIRED's request to comment on Wardle's findings. Wardle admits that he did not actually tell Apple the details of his research before he was in DefCon talk but went them an unpleasant surprise. But he claims that after he notified the company to his previous findings before SyScan, Apple should not have left sloppy, usable bugs in the same security. "I've reported many bugs to them and it does not work as it is inspirational changes, "says Wardle." So let's try something different. "

Of course, the popup window asks that Wardle's synthetic click bypass is still visible to users and tipped them off to malicious software on the computer. But Wardle points out that harmful Software can wait for inactivity indications that the user may have gone away from the computer before triggering and clicking through macOS messages. It may even reduce screen during the inactive moments so that they are not visible at all.

Wardle admits that his synthetic clickthrough attacks do not exactly give immediate access to a Mac's inner sanctum. But in some hands, they can be a dangerous tool. And he claims that they are part of a repetitive pattern of Apple's last security vulnerability, from vulnerability that allows anyone to gain privileged access to a Mac by writing "root" as its username to an error in Apple's file system software that showed users & # 39; password when someone just requests a password tip.

"We see these very low vulnerabilities that continue to breathe," says Wardle. "This mistake is so lame in a way, but it's also very powerful, which means I'll laugh and cry at the same time."


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