Today in parts of Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe and South America it will be possible to observe the longest total lunar eclipse of the century with almost 1 hour, 42 minutes and 57 seconds duration. During this time some simple geological observations can be made with the naked eye or even better a small telescope.
The famous 'Man in the Moon' is an optical illusion based on patterns formed by the dark and white terrains on the lunar surface. The lunar maria, the dark regions of the Moon, formed when large basins were filled with basalt, a volcanic rock, some 3.9 to 3.2 billion years ago. The light- colored highlands are composed of anorthosite, an igneous rock rich in the white min eral feldspar. De highlands are believed to be the remains of the 4.5 to 3.9 billion years old original crust of the Moon. On Earth, the movements of the tectonic plate constantly push and pull the outer crust into the interior and new crust forms along the sutures of Earth's plates. On the small moon, there is not enough interior heat to drive plate tectonics. So the original crust was preserved, providing today's insights into the early history of Earth and Moon.
Tycho is a prominent impact crater located in the southern lunar highlands. A good telescope reveals more than 30,000 craters on the Moon's surface. Until the 20th century, the origin of the cratered surface was unclear. Sommige vroege natuurkundigen geloofden dat de kraters de resultaten van gas ontsnapten van de Moon's interieur, die grote bubbels van rock op het oppervlak vormen. A more common explanation suggested volcanoes, similar found on Earth. Astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822), the Discoverer of Uranus, supposedly even spotted an eruption, as he writes' I perceive three volcanos in different places of the dark part of the new moon. Twee van hen zijn ofwel al bijna uitgestorven, of anders in een toestand van gaan uitbraken; which may be decided next lunation. The third shows an actual eruption of four, or luminous matter … The volcano burns with greater violence than last night … All the adjacent parts of the volcanic mountain seemed to be faintly illuminated by the eruption, and were gradually more obscure as they lay at a greater distance from the crater. ' Maybe Herschel observed an impact, as there are no signs of recent volcanism to be found on the Moon, even if seismic surveys (made possible by the successful Moon Landing in 1969) suggest that the Moon is still geologically active.
Today in parts of Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe and South America, it will be possible to observe the longest total lunar eclipse of the century with almost 1 hour, 42 minutes and 57 seconds duration.  The Moon appears generally darker than Earth, as large parts of the lunar surface are covered in volcanic rocks. D.Bressan